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Alexander right worthy son, covet not always worldy things, for they are corruptible. And know that you must leave everything. Desire then such things that can not corrupt. That is the life that can not change and the eternal realm. And raise your thoughts in goodness, and therein keep yourself strong and glorious. And leave the life of beasts that always live in their filthiness. Believe not lightly all things that are told to you.


Alexander ryght worthy sone, coveyt not alwayes worldly thynges, for they be corruptyble. And thynke that thou must leave all. Demaunde than suche thynges as can not be corrupte. That is the lyfe that can not chaunge and the relme perdurable. And reyse thy thoughts in goodnesse, and therin kepe the stronge & gloryous. And leave the lyfe of bestes that alwaye lyve in theyr fylthynesse. Beleve not lyghtly al thynge that is tolde to thee

– Aristotle to Alexander the Great, Kitab Sirr al-Asrar, 10th century, (and 1528 translation)