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I require you, sweet son, that you out of your goodness, think and inquire oftentimes about your poor subjects, and know their necessities. And set among them such men as be virtuous and who love god and Justice and who know their manners, and understand their way of speaking, and can govern them peaceably and in love. And if you do it in that way, you shall do the pleasure of your Creator, And it shall be a safeguarde to your realm, and gladness of you and your people.


I requyre the swete sone that thou of thy goodnesse thynke and inquyre oftentymes of thy poore subgectes, and knowe theyr necessytees. And set amonge them suche men as be vertuous and that loveth god and Justyce and that knoweth theyr maners, and understandeth theyr speches, and can governe them peasybly and in love. And yf thou do thus, thou shalt do the pleasure of thy creatoure. And it shall be saufegarde to thy realme, and gladnesse of the and thy people.

– Aristotle to Alexander the Great, Kitab Sirr al-Asrar, 10th cent, (and 1528 translation)